Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301T was isolated as an acidophilic, aerobic, anoxygenic and phototrophic bacterium from pyritic acid mine drainage. Members of the genus Acidiphlium belonging to alpha-proteobacteria are well known to have high ability of resistance to various metals under acidic condition, and require high acidity for growth. A. multivorum AIU301T is also characterized as a strain exhibiting tolerance to nickel, zinc, cadmium and copper ion. Furthermore, A. multivorum AIU301T exhibits resistance to arsenate and arsenite. Also interesting is that A. multivorum AIU301T has zinc-chelated-bacteriochlorophylls (Zn-Bchl) a rather than Mg-Bchl a as the major photopigment. This unique character is limited in a group of aerobic acidophilic proteobacteria including species of the genus Acidiphlium.
Genome analysis of A. multivorum AIU301T revealed nine replicons composed of one circular chromosome (3,749,411 bp, 67.6% G+C, 3,449 ORF) and eight circular plasmids pACMV1 (271,573 bp, 62.9% G+C, 284 ORF), pACMV2 (65,564 bp, 61.9% G+C, 69 ORF), pACMV3 (54,248 bp, 61.2% G+C, 61 ORF), pACMV4 (40,588 bp, 60.1% G+C, 44 ORF), pACMV5 (14,328 bp, 59.0% G+C, 19 ORF), pACMV6 (12,125 bp, 59.6% G+C, 14 ORF), pACMV7 (5,178 bp, 57.6% G+C, 8 ORF) and pACMV8 (1,728 bp, 60.9% G+C, 1 ORF). The chromosome and circular plasmids encode many genes which seem to be involved in heavy metal-transport, and three operons which seem to contribute to arsenic resistance. A. multivorum AIU301T chromosome showed overall high conservation of synteny with Acidipphilium cryptum JF-5 chromosome which has been sequenced, excluding a few regions. One of the unique regions that exist only in A. multivorum AIU301T is a 225-kb region which contains the photosynthesis gene cluster and many insertion sequences.
The genome sequence of A. multivorum AIU301T would provide insights into the understanding of acidophilic bacteria, and may also facilitate the development of technologies utilizing this bacterium such as bioremediation in acidic and metal-rich environment.
|Genomic size||4,214,744 bp|
|G+C content||66.97 %|
|Number of ORFs assigned||3,949|
|Percentage of the coding regions||90.93 %|
|Percentage of the intronic regions||0.00 %|
|Number of rRNA genes||
|Number of tRNA genes||
|Number of other features
The nucleotide sequence of the A. multivorum AIU301T (= NBRC 100883T) genome was determined by the whole genome shotgun sequencing method as in the case of other organisms analyzed at NITE-DOB.