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Aspergillus oryzae RIB40
Saccharomyces cerevisiae K7
Aeropyrum pernix K1T
Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7T
Methanocella paludicola SANAET
Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3T
Kitasatospora setae NBRC 14216T
Rhodococcus opacus B4
Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4
Kocuria rhizophila DC2201
Microlunatus phosphovorus NM-1T
Corynebacterium efficiens YS-314T
Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680T
Caldisericum exile AZM16c01T
Anaerolinea thermophila UNI-1T
Arthrospira platensis NIES-39
Deferribacter desulfuricans SSM1T
Staphylococcus haemolyticus JCSC1435
Staphylococcus aureus MW2
Staphylococcus aureus N315
Brevibacillus brevis NBRC 100599
Oscillibacter valericigenes Sjm18-20T
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca T-27T
Acetobacter pasteurianus IFO 3283-32
Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301
Sphingobium japonicum UT26S
Sphingobium sp. SYK-6
Desulfovibrio magneticus RS-1
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium T000240
About this genome
(Gemmatimonadetes): identification of a novel carotenoid, deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside, and proposed biosynthetic pathway of oscillol 2,2'-dirhamnoside.
Takaichi S.,Maoka T.,Takasaki K.,Hanada S.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 156 (2010) 757-63
Gemmatimonas aurantiaca strain T-27(T) is an orange-coloured, Gram-negative, facultatively aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating bacterium belonging to a recently proposed phylum, Gemmatimonadetes. We purified its pigments and identified them as carotenoids and their glycoside derivatives using spectral data. The major carotenoid was (2S,2' S)-oscillol 2,2'-di-(alpha-l-rhamnoside), and the minor carotenoids were (2S)-deoxyoscillol 2-( alpha-l-rhamnoside) and didemethylspirilloxanthin. Deoxyoscillol 2-rhamnoside is a novel carotenoid. Oscillol 2,2'-diglycosides have hitherto only been reported in a limited number of cyanobacteria, and this is believed to be the first finding of such carotenoids in another bacterial phylum. Based on the identification of the carotenoids and the completion of the entire nucleotide sequence, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for the carotenoids and the corresponding genes and enzymes. We propose the involvement of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase (CrtE), phytoene synthase (CrtB) and phytoene desaturase (CrtI) for lycopene synthesis; and of carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) and carotenoid 2-O-rhamnosyltransferase (CruG) for oscillol 2,2'-dirhamnoside synthesis. Further, isopentenyl pyrophosphate could be synthesized by a non-mevalonate pathway (DXP pathway).
Vertical transmission of a phylogenetically complex microbial consortium in the viviparous sponge Ircinia felix.
Schmitt S.,Weisz JB.,Lindquist N.,Hentschel U.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73 (2007) 2067-78
Many marine demosponges contain large amounts of phylogenetically complex yet highly sponge-specific microbial consortia within the mesohyl matrix, but little is known about how these microorganisms are acquired by their hosts. Settlement experiments were performed with the viviparous Caribbean demosponge Ircinia felix to investigate the role of larvae in the vertical transmission of the sponge-associated microbial community. Inspections by electron microscopy revealed large amounts of morphologically diverse microorganisms in the center of I. felix larvae, while the outer rim appeared to be devoid of microorganisms. In juveniles, microorganisms were found between densely packed sponge cells. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to compare the bacterial community profiles of adults, larvae, and juvenile sponges. Adults and larvae were highly similar in DGGE band numbers and banding patterns. Larvae released by the same adult individual contained highly similar DGGE banding patterns, whereas larvae released by different adult individuals showed slightly different DGGE banding patterns. Over 200 bands were excised, sequenced, and phylogenetically analyzed. The bacterial diversity of adult I. felix and its larvae was comparably high, while juveniles showed reduced diversity. In total, 13 vertically transmitted sequence clusters, hereafter termed "IF clusters," that contained sequences from both the adult sponge and offspring (larvae and/or juveniles) were found. The IF clusters belonged to at least four different eubacterial phyla and one possibly novel eubacterial lineage. In summary, it could be shown that in I. felix, vertical transmission of microorganisms through the larvae is an important mechanism for the establishment of the sponge-microbe association.
Effects of growth medium, inoculum size, and incubation time on culturability and isolation of soil bacteria.
Davis KE.,Joseph SJ.,Janssen PH.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 826-34
Soils are inhabited by many bacteria from phylogenetic groups that are poorly studied because representatives are rarely isolated in cultivation studies. Part of the reason for the failure to cultivate these bacteria is the low frequency with which bacterial cells in soil form visible colonies when inoculated onto standard microbiological media, resulting in low viable counts. We investigated the effects of three factors on viable counts, assessed as numbers of CFU on solid media, and on the phylogenetic groups to which the isolated colony-forming bacteria belong. These factors were inoculum size, growth medium, and incubation time. Decreasing the inoculum size resulted in significant increases in the viable count but did not appear to affect colony formation by members of rarely isolated groups. Some media that are traditionally used for soil microbiological studies returned low viable counts and did not result in the isolation of members of rarely isolated groups. Newly developed media, in contrast, resulted in high viable counts and in the isolation of many members of rarely isolated groups, regardless of the inoculum size. Increased incubation times of up to 3 months allowed the development of visible colonies of members of rarely isolated groups in conjunction with the use of appropriate media. Once isolated, pure cultures of members of rarely isolated groups took longer to form visible colonies than did members of commonly isolated groups. Using these new media and extended incubation times, we were able to isolate many members of the phyla Acidobacteria (subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 4), Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes (including representatives of the previously uncultured WPS-1 lineage) as well as members of the subclasses Rubrobacteridae and Acidimicrobidae of the phylum Actinobacteria.
gen. nov., sp. nov., a gram-negative, aerobic, polyphosphate-accumulating micro-organism, the first cultured representative of the new bacterial phylum
Zhang H.,Sekiguchi Y.,Hanada S.,Hugenholtz P.,Kim H.,Kamagata Y.,Nakamura K.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53 (2003) 1155-63
A phylogenetically novel aerobic bacterium was isolated from an anaerobic-aerobic sequential batch reactor operated under enhanced biological phosphorus removal conditions for wastewater treatment. The isolation strategy used targeted slowly growing polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria by combining low-speed centrifugations and prolonged incubation on a low-nutrient medium. The isolate, designated strain T-27T, was a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobe. Cells often appeared to divide by budding replication. Strain T-27T grew at 25-35 degrees C with an optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C, whilst no growth was observed below 20 degrees C or above 37 degrees C within 20 days incubation. The pH range for growth was 6.5-9.5, with an optimum at pH 7.0. Strain T-27T was able to utilize a limited range of substrates, such as yeast extract, polypepton, succinate, acetate, gelatin and benzoate. Neisser staining was positive and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells displayed a yellow fluorescence, indicative of polyphosphate inclusions. Menaquinone 9 was the major respiratory quinone. The cellular fatty acids of the strain were mainly composed of iso-C15:0, C16:1 and C14:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 66 mol%. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain T-27T belongs to candidate division BD (also called KS-B), a phylum-level lineage in the bacterial domain, to date comprised exclusively of environmental 16S rDNA clone sequences. Here, a new genus and species are proposed, Gemmatimonas aurantiaca (type strain T-27T=JCM 11422T=DSM 14586T) gen. nov., sp. nov., the first cultivated representative of the Gemmatimonadetes phyl. nov. Environmental sequence data indicate that this phylum is widespread in nature and has a phylogenetic breadth (19% 16S rDNA sequence divergence) that is greater than well-known phyla such as the Actinobacteria (18% divergence).
Laboratory cultivation of widespread and previously uncultured soil bacteria.
Joseph SJ.,Hugenholtz P.,Sangwan P.,Osborne CA.,Janssen PH.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 69 (2003) 7210-5
Most soil bacteria belong to family-level phylogenetic groups with few or no known cultivated representatives. We cultured a collection of 350 isolates from soil by using simple solid media in petri dishes. These isolates were assigned to 60 family-level groupings in nine bacterial phyla on the basis of a comparative analysis of their 16S rRNA genes. Ninety-three (27%) of the isolates belonged to 20 as-yet-unnamed family-level groupings, many from poorly studied bacterial classes and phyla. They included members of subdivisions 1, 2, 3, and 4 of the phylum Acidobacteria, subdivision 3 of the phylum Verrucomicrobia, subdivision 1 of the phylum Gemmatimonadetes, and subclasses Acidimicrobidae and Rubrobacteridae of the phylum ACTINOBACTERIA: In addition, members of 10 new family-level groupings of subclass Actinobacteridae of the phylum Actinobacteria and classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria were obtained. The high degree of phylogenetic novelty and the number of isolates affiliated with so-called unculturable groups show that simple cultivation methods can still be developed further to obtain laboratory cultures of many phylogenetically novel soil bacteria.
National Institute of Technology and Evaluation
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