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Cluster information : Avermectin


close this sectionCompound

Entry nameAvermectin
PKS TypeTypeI modular
Starter UnitAvermectin a: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA
Avermectin b: isobutyryl-CoA
Chain Length13
Sugar UnitL-oleandrose
ClassificationOther Macrocyclic Lactone
ActivityAnthelmintic
CompositionAvermectin B1a: C48H72O14
Avermectin

close this sectionOriginal source


close this sectionPKS/NRPS Module

Aver_00040
aveA1
0 2-methylbutyryl-CoA for a component
isobutyryl-CoA for b component
1 methylmalonyl-CoA
not conserved YASHS(S->C)
2 malonyl-CoA
Aver_00050
aveA2
3 malonyl-CoA
4 malonyl-CoA
not conserved HAFHS(H->N)
5 malonyl-CoA
6 methylmalonyl-CoA
not conserved YASHS(S->C)
Aver_00080
aveA3
7 methylmalonyl-CoA
not conserved YASHS(S->C)
8 malonyl-CoA
9 methylmalonyl-CoA
not conserved YASHS(S->C)
Aver_00090
aveA4
10 malonyl-CoA
11 methylmalonyl-CoA
not conserved YASHS(Y->W)
12 malonyl-CoA
AT29..353
ACP382..452
KS481..860
AT1050..1368
KR1715..1895
ACP1991..2061
KS2086..2462
AT2638..2951
DH3005..3176
KR3537..3717
ACP3817..3887
KS36..413
AT597..915
ACP986..1060
KS1082..1459
AT1654..1972
KR2306..2486
ACP2583..2657
KS2679..3055
AT3231..3546
KR3878..4059
ACP4171..4241
KS4270..4649
AT4815..5133
DH5189..5362
KR5753..5933
ACP6044..6114
KS38..413
AT603..921
dh976..1148
KR1488..1668
ACP1768..1838
KS1863..2241
AT2425..2743
DH2797..2969
KR3288..3468
ACP3568..3638
KS3662..4039
AT4211..4531
DH4585..4753
KR5085..5265
ACP5365..5435
KS34..409
AT578..899
kr1212..1392
ACP1495..1565
KS1590..1967
AT2139..2457
ACP2537..2607
KS2635..3012
AT3263..3599
DH3650..3827
KR4183..4363
ACP4473..4554
TE4670..4873

close this sectionReference

Production of 6,8a-seco-6,8a-deoxy derivatives of avermectins by a mutant strain of Streptomyces avermitilis.
Pang CH, Matsuzaki K, Ikeda H, Tanaka H, Omura S
[PMID: 7868391]J Antibiot (Tokyo). 48 (1995) 59-66
Cloning of the gene encoding avermectin B 5-O-methyltransferase in avermectin-producing Streptomyces avermitilis.
Ikeda H, Wang LR, Ohta T, Inokoshi J, Omura S
[PMID: 9469930]Gene. 206 (1998) 175-80
Organization of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyketide anthelmintic macrolide avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis.
Ikeda H, Nonomiya T, Usami M, Ohta T, Omura S
[PMID: 10449723]Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 96 (1999) 9509-14
Insights about the biosynthesis of the avermectin deoxysugar L-oleandrose through heterologous expression of Streptomyces avermitilis deoxysugar genes in Streptomyces lividans.
Wohlert S, Lomovskaya N, Kulowski K, Fonstein L, Occi JL, Gewain KM, MacNeil DJ, Hutchinson CR
[PMID: 11451669]Chem Biol. 8 (2001) 681-700
Organization of biosynthetic gene cluster for avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis: analysis of enzymatic domains in four polyketide synthases.
Ikeda H, Nonomiya T, Omura S
[PMID: 11780788]J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 27 (2001) 170-6
Semi-synthetic DNA shuffling of aveC leads to improved industrial scale production of doramectin by Streptomyces avermitilis.
Stutzman-Engwall K, Conlon S, Fedechko R, McArthur H, Pekrun K, Chen Y, Jenne S, La C, Trinh N, Kim S, Zhang YX, Fox R, Gustafsson C, Krebber A
[PMID: 15721808]Metab Eng. 7 (2005) 27-37
The in vitro characterization of the iterative avermectin glycosyltransferase AveBI reveals reaction reversibility and sugar nucleotide flexibility.
Zhang C, Albermann C, Fu X, Thorson JS
[PMID: 17177349]J Am Chem Soc. 128 (2006) 16420-1
Engineering of avermectin biosynthetic genes to improve production of ivermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis.
Li M, Chen Z, Lin X, Zhang X, Song Y, Wen Y, Li J
[PMID: 18824353]Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 18 (2008) 5359-63
Characterization of a regulatory gene, aveR, for the biosynthesis of avermectin in Streptomyces avermitilis.
Kitani S, Ikeda H, Sakamoto T, Noguchi S, Nihira T
[PMID: 19148632]Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 82 (2009) 1089-96
The pathway-specific regulator AveR from Streptomyces avermitilis positively regulates avermectin production while it negatively affects oligomycin biosynthesis.
Guo J, Zhao J, Li L, Chen Z, Wen Y, Li J
[PMID: 20012992]Mol Genet Genomics. 283 (2010) 123-33
Direct proteomic mapping of Streptomyces avermitilis wild and industrial strain and insights into avermectin production.
Yin P, Li YY, Zhou J, Wang YH, Zhang SL, Ye BC, Ge WF, Xia YL
[PMID: 23201115]J Proteomics. 79 (2013) 1-12
Spiroketal formation and modification in avermectin biosynthesis involves a dual activity of AveC.
Sun P, Zhao Q, Yu F, Zhang H, Wu Z, Wang Y, Wang Y, Zhang Q, Liu W
[PMID: 23294008]J Am Chem Soc. 135 (2013) 1540-8
Structural and functional analysis of the loading acyltransferase from avermectin modular polyketide synthase.
Wang F, Wang Y, Ji J, Zhou Z, Yu J, Zhu H, Su Z, Zhang L, Zheng J
[PMID: 25581064]ACS Chem Biol. 10 (2015) 1017-25
The PhoP transcription factor negatively regulates avermectin biosynthesis in Streptomyces avermitilis.
Yang R, Liu X, Wen Y, Song Y, Chen Z, Li J
[PMID: 26298701]Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 99 (2015) 10547-57

close this sectionData download

Compound nameGenomic
nucleotide
sequence
Nucleotide
sequences of the
coding regions
Translation of the
coding sequences
List of genes/ORFsGBK
Avermectin
Genomic nucleotide sequence
81 KB
Nucleotide sequences of the coding regions
22 KB
Translation of the coding sequences
12 KB
List of genes/ORFs
1 KB

 

 
GenBank format
150 KB
AB032524
Genomic nucleotide sequence
6 KB
Nucleotide sequences of the coding regions
5 KB
Translation of the coding sequences
2 KB
List of genes/ORFs
545 B

 

 

 
AB032367
Genomic nucleotide sequence
66 KB
Nucleotide sequences of the coding regions
65 KB
Translation of the coding sequences
22 KB
List of genes/ORFs
885 B

 

 

 
AB032523
Genomic nucleotide sequence
10 KB
Nucleotide sequences of the coding regions
10 KB
Translation of the coding sequences
4 KB
List of genes/ORFs
2 KB

 

 

 

close this sectionHistory

  • 2016-01-27[Update]
  • 2013-05-28[Update]
  • 2012-08-03[Update]
  • 2012-03-28[Release]