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Cluster information : Granaticin

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Entry nameGranaticin
PKS TypeTypeII
Starter Unitmalonyl-CoA
Chain Length8
Sugar UnitD-olivose
L-rhodinose [B]
ClassificationBenzoisochromanequinone (BIQ)

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Functional replacement of genes for individual polyketide synthase components in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by heterologous genes from a different polyketide pathway.
Sherman DH, Kim ES, Bibb MJ, Hopwood DA
[PMID: 1400167]J Bacteriol. 174 (1992) 6184-90
Structure and deduced function of the granaticin-producing polyketide synthase gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22.
Sherman DH, Malpartida F, Bibb MJ, Kieser HM, Bibb MJ, Hopwood DA
[PMID: 2583128]EMBO J. 8 (1989) 2717-25
Identification of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22 genes involved in the biosynthesis of granaticin.
Bechthold A, Sohng JK, Smith TM, Chu X, Floss HG
[PMID: 7476861]Mol Gen Genet. 248 (1995) 610-20
Genetic construction and functional analysis of hybrid polyketide synthases containing heterologous acyl carrier proteins.
Khosla C, McDaniel R, Ebert-Khosla S, Torres R, Sherman DH, Bibb MJ, Hopwood DA
[PMID: 8468280]J Bacteriol. 175 (1993) 2197-204
Utilization of enzymatically phosphopantetheinylated acyl carrier proteins and acetyl-acyl carrier proteins by the actinorhodin polyketide synthase.
Carreras CW, Gehring AM, Walsh CT, Khosla C
[PMID: 9305965]Biochemistry. 36 (1997) 11757-61
The granaticin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22: sequence analysis and expression in a heterologous host.
Ichinose K, Bedford DJ, Tornus D, Bechthold A, Bibb MJ, Revill WP, Floss HG, Hopwood DA
[PMID: 9831526]Chem Biol. 5 (1998) 647-59
Identification of four genes from the granaticin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22 involved in the biosynthesis of L-rhodinose.
Tornus D, Floss HG
[PMID: 11269719]J Antibiot (Tokyo). 54 (2001) 91-101
Functional complementation of pyran ring formation in actinorhodin biosynthesis in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by ketoreductase genes for granaticin biosynthesis.
Ichinose K, Taguchi T, Bedford DJ, Ebizuka Y, Hopwood DA
[PMID: 11325954]J Bacteriol. 183 (2001) 3247-50
A new mode of stereochemical control revealed by analysis of the biosynthesis of dihydrogranaticin in Streptomyces violaceoruber Tu22.
Taguchi T, Ebizuka Y, Hopwood DA, Ichinose K
[PMID: 11707113]J Am Chem Soc. 123 (2001) 11376-80
Widespread activation of antibiotic biosynthesis by S-adenosylmethionine in streptomycetes.
Huh JH, Kim DJ, Zhao XQ, Li M, Jo YY, Yoon TM, Shin SK, Yong JH, Ryu YW, Yang YY, Suh JW
[PMID: 15358431]FEMS Microbiol Lett. 238 (2004) 439-47
Remarkably different structures and reaction mechanisms of ketoreductases for the opposite stereochemical control in the biosynthesis of BIQ antibiotics.
Taguchi T, Kunieda K, Takeda-Shitaka M, Takaya D, Kawano N, Kimberley MR, Booker-Milburn KI, Stephenson GR, Umeyama H, Ebizuka Y, Ichinose K
[PMID: 15498668]Bioorg Med Chem. 12 (2004) 5917-27
Biosynthetic conclusions from the functional dissection of oxygenases for biosynthesis of actinorhodin and related streptomyces antibiotics.
Taguchi T, Yabe M, Odaki H, Shinozaki M, Metsa-Ketela M, Arai T, Okamoto S, Ichinose K
[PMID: 23601640]Chem Biol. 20 (2013) 510-20

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Compound nameGenomic
sequences of the
coding regions
Translation of the
coding sequences
List of genes/ORFsGBK
Genomic nucleotide sequence
40 KB
Nucleotide sequences of the coding regions
36 KB
Translation of the coding sequences
14 KB
List of genes/ORFs
6 KB


GenBank format
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close this sectionHistory

  • 2013-01-16[Update]
  • 2012-10-02[Update]
  • 2012-08-03[Update]
  • 2012-06-04[Release]